*Small Black Particles are Characteristic of this Product
While oxygen is necessary for life, it can also be a dangerous unregulated free radical. Oxidation seems to lie at the heart of almost all damage to healthy tissues like skin and hair. When we speak about the damaging effects of oxygen we are not referring to O2 but to the various reactive oxygen species (ROS), the superoxide anion (O2-), the hydroxyl radical (OH.), singlet oxygen (1O2), and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). Biologically, oxygen is converted to water by the stepwise addition of electrons. The superoxide anion is the first step in the process. While not the most reactive of ROS, superoxide is the most persistent. Capable of producing considerable damage, the superoxide anion is the preferred weapon of the human immune system. Biological systems neutralize the superoxide anion via the enzyme Superoxide Dismutase (SOD) to form the transient hydrogen peroxide. Hydrogen peroxide can then in turn, be neutralized to form water by one of the several peroxidases, bypassing the formation of the highly reactive hydroxyl radical. The first widely cited reference for the activity of exogenous SOD relevant to cosmetics appeared in 1974.
While there are many reactive oxygen species that are initiated biologically by ionizing radiation, the superoxide anion is the oxidative chain’s high level control. The superoxide anion and other ROS can harm organisms by damaging genetic information, oxidizing proteins, or initiating lipid peroxidation. Often irritation appears as a symptom of that damage, although this may occur at a sub-clinical level.
Protecting the organism from oxidative stress when its natural defenses are overwhelmed is one of the key approaches in modern cosmetics. SOD, an oxido-reductase, occurs in three forms, each defined by the metals present. Cu/Zn SOD is the most stable form and the most commonly used in cosmetics. Unlike Vitamin E, Vitamin C, or other antioxidants such as polyphenols, SOD is an enzyme and is not consumed in the process of neutralizing free radicals. Enzymes work like small machines continuously processing while suitable substrate and conditions are available. SOD does not generally react with free radicals, only the superoxide anion. The enzyme targets a specific harmful molecule, making truly ‘smart’ cosmetic products possible. Several Superoxide Dismutases are available on the market, ranging from marine to recombinant human SOD, all of them in a purified form. FSS Ox-Red SOD is not a purified enzyme but an intact enzyme complex comprised of the active enzyme as well as the associated chaperone proteins, this accounts for the drastic difference in stability. Chaperone proteins function as the scaffolding that holds the enzyme in a stable confirmation. Purified enzymes lack that stabilization and show a resultant loss of activity when placed in solution.
Use of SOD in cosmetics is widespread. While SOD was originally used as an additive to high-end skincare products, it can now be found in the full spectrum of personal care products. There is ample evidence that topical application of SOD serves to reduce irritation. Another area in which SOD is currently receiving much attention is for the protection of hair, dyed hair in particular. Many products on the market discuss enzymatic color protection for processed hair. The theory being that much of the perceived color-fade is not due to direct photodegredation of the hair dye, but oxidation propagated by ROS. FSS Ox-Red SODwas designed to effectively reduce irritation with the added benefit of protecting against color fade.
FSS Ox-Red SOD was designed to be an anti-aging, anti-oxidant, and color protection product and with the present study we can confirm that this unique ingredient is not only capable of providing functional benefits but it is also capable of providing potent antioxidant benefits when added to cosmetic applications.
Storage: Protected from direct light and humidity at a temperature of 50°-77°F (10°-25°C)
Shelf life: 12 months, properly stored, in sealed container.
This product should be added to a formulation at the recommended usage rate.